Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, functions, pathology, and treatment of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a doctor whose specialty is this branch of medicine.Also see aqueous humor, colorblind, interdisciplinary, iris, lens, light, optical, perception, photoreceptors, pupil, refraction, retina, rods and cones, science and art, seeing, sight, and vitreous humor.